NEW CORPORATE CODE SINT MAARTEN

Various matters not yet discussed here

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force. The prohibition of appointing Supervisory Directors besides a ‘one-tier Board’ has been deleted (Article 2:19 paragraph 1 Corporate Code). Supervisory Directors being a legal entity are allowed to a limited extent (Article 2:19 paragraph 3 Corporate Code).

For the NV and the BV the law determines who has the right to attend meetings (Article 2:129/229 Corporate Code). Unfortunately, in this connection no attention is given to the holders of depositary receipts for shares. In the …
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31
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

AMENDED SINT MAARTEN LEGISLATION ON CONFLICTING INTEREST

The new law gives shareholders more freedom

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force. Among other things, the provisions with regard to conflicting interest have been thoroughly reviewed and strongly curtailed.

The basic rule provides that the authority with regard to legal acts in connection with lawsuits against a Managing Director rests with the Supervisory Board. If the company has no Supervisory Board, this authority rests with the general meeting or a person or body to be appointed by the general meeting for that case. With regard to …
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27
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

REVISED SINT MAARTEN LEGISLATION ON DIRECTORS’ LIABILITY IN BANKRUPTCY

Improper bookkeeping may result in liability

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force. Among other things, the provisions with regard to Managing Director’s liability have been improved.

In the event of the bankruptcy of the legal entity each Managing Director is jointly and severally liable to the estate for the deficit being the amount of the debts insofar as they cannot be settled by liquidation of the other assets if apparent improper management had been involved and it is plausible that this is a major cause of the …
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24
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

NEW SINT MAARTEN LEGISLATION ON CORPORATE REPRESENTATION

Restrictions in managing authority work through into the representative authority

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force.

Restrictions of the managing authority can arise from a by-law or a corporate agreement. Individual Managing Directors exercise their powers with due observance of the resolutions of the Management Board (Article 2:8 paragraph 2 Corporate Code). Subject to restrictions arising from the law or the Articles of Association, the legal entity is represented by the Management Board. If there are multiple Managing Directors the legal entity is represented by each Managing …
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20
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

OUTBOUND MERGER INTRODUCED IN SINT MAARTEN

Outbound mergers now possible

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force.

The possibility already existed that in connection with a merger, a foreign legal entity as the disappearing legal entity merges with a comparable legal form of the Corporate Code of St. Maarten on the condition that the law governing that foreign legal entity is not incompatible with the merger and the manner in which it is brought about (Article 2:323a BW; ‘inbound ’).

It has now also become possible that a legal entity within the sense of the …
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18
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

INQUIRY PROCEDURE INTRODUCED IN SINT MAARTEN

The Joint Court is the forum of choice for corporate disputes

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force. The new legislation introduces a so-called inquiry procedure for, amongst others, limited liability companies. The corporate inquiry procedure (a.k.a. investigation proceedings) can result in a court ordered investigation into the affairs of a corporation. In Curaçao the revised Corporate Code took effect as of January 1, 2012.

Shareholders of such a corporation (i.e. an NV or BV) may file a petition with the Joint Court of Justice of Aruba, Curacao …
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14
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

GOVERNMENT-OWNED COMPANIES

Opposing views on political influence

Few people would argue that the rules issued by the state (government) must also be correctly and strictly observed by that same state. It cannot be well conceived that, for example, the police and Public Prosecutor’s Office (as instruments of the state) should be allowed to violate the law with impunity.

Though there may be very different opinions about the nature and the role of the state (particularly from a philosophical and jurisprudential viewpoint), here we address the question of how we should consider government-owned companies, and in particular, what level of influence the government …
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17
Feb 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

THE INCORPORATION OF A CURACAO LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY

Incorporating an NV or BV is not a hassle

The act on corporate law (Book 2 Curaçao Civil Code) governs the NV (‘public limited liability company’) and BV (‘private limited liability company’). These companies can be used for group finance or holding activities, (international) joint-ventures, funds, structured finance, as a Curaçao Trust and for “plain-vanilla” (local) activities.

A notarial deed is required for the formation of an NV or BV and for any amendment to articles of association (a.k.a. articles of incorporation). Formation can however, be very quick (within one or two days if necessary) and does not require many …
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14
Feb 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

IMPACT OF THE LIABILITY TO THE DIRECTOR OF THE DIRECTOR (I)

Liability of the 2nd degree director

Under Section 2:17 subsection 1 of the Curaçao Civil Code, the liability of a legal entity as a director of another legal entity (the direct or 1st degree director) also rests jointly and severally on each person who at the time this liability arose for the legal entity was its director (the indirect or 2nd degree director). It applies to this indirect director as it applies to the direct director that he will not be liable if he can prove that he cannot be blamed for the improper performance of duties, also considering his …
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04
Sep 2013
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

DIRECTORS’ LIABILITY IN CURACAO

Quasi-director may be held liable too

The members of the board of managing directors are personally and severally liable towards the limited liability company (NV or BV) for any loss caused by the improper performance of duties. Each member of the board who proves that he cannot be blamed for such improper performance and that the activities concerned fall outside the scope of activities addressed to him, and that he has not been negligent in taking steps to avert the related consequences, is not liable (Section 2:14 subsection 4 Curaçao Civil Code; “CCC”). Therefore, a division of tasks among such …
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30
Aug 2013
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

ORDER OF THE COMMON APPEAL COURT OF CURACAO CONCERNING THE RIGHT TO INSTITUTE AN INQUIRY

The Appeal Court has taken several fundamental decisions

On 5 March 2013 the Common Court of Justice of Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten and of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (case: Ghis 55769 – HAR 28/12) issued an order in connection with inquiry proceedings. This order contains three major considerations.

The right of legal entities (including public limited companies [NV] and private companies with limited liability [BV]) to institute an inquiry was introduced in Curacao on 1 January 2012. Almost immediately after this introduction an application for instituting inquiry proceedings was submitted to the Appeal Court. The facts …
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07
Mar 2013
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

BESCHIKKING INZAKE ENQUETERECHT GEMEENSCHAPPELIJK HOF CURACAO

Het Hof neemt enkele principiële beslissingen

Op 5 maart 2013 heeft het Gemeenschappelijk Hof van Justitie van Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten en van Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba (zaak: Ghis 55769 – HAR 28/12) een beschikking in het kader van een enquêteprocedure gegeven. Drie belangrijke overwegingen worden hier genoemd.

Het enquêterecht voor rechtspersonen (waaronder naamloze en besloten vennootschappen) is in Curaçao op 1 januari 2012 ingevoerd. Vrijwel direct na de invoering is een enquêteverzoek bij het Hof ingediend. De feiten die aan dat verzoek ten grondslag zijn gelegd hebben betrekking op de jaren voorafgaande aan de invoering van het enquêterecht. …
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05
Mar 2013
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments