THE DUTY OF CARE OF BANKS

Banks are under the obligation to exercise due care

In the Dutch Caribbean, no separately defined body of law exists with regard to the relationship between a (commercial) bank and its customer. The standard general terms and conditions applied by banks in the Dutch Caribbean have an important function in the legal relationship between banks and their customers. They enter into effect once explicitly or implicitly accepted by the customer.

According to most general conditions “the bank shall exercise due care on rendering its services. In doing so the bank shall reckon to the best of its ability with the client’s interests, …
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21
Nov 2015
CATEGORY

Finance

COMMENTS No Comments

CURACAO CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

Prudential supervision

The Curacao regulatory legislation applicable to credit institutions provides for requirements with regard to the prudential supervision in general. Such prudential supervision sees to the liquidity and solvency position of a bank without going into further detail for instance as to the safekeeping of assets or maintaining of accounts of third parties.

The Curacao legislation provides for reporting requirements that need to be submitted to the Central Bank of Curacao and St. Maarten (CBCS). However, these requirements apply only to banks regulated in Curacao.

On the basis of such reports and accounts the CBCS has the authority to …
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12
Oct 2012
CATEGORY

Legal

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BANKING SUPERVISION IN CURACAO AND SINT MAARTEN

Prudential rules and requirements

The Central Bank of Curacao and St. Maarten is responsible for the care of the financial system’s health, effected through on and off site inspections of the banking and other financial institutions authorized to operate in Curacao and St. Maarten.

The National ordinance on the supervision of banks and credit institutions provides for requirements with regard to the prudential supervision in general. Such prudential supervision sees to the liquidity and solvency position of a bank.

The legislation provides for reporting requirements that need to be submitted to the Central Bank of Curacao and St. Maarten. On …
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23
Apr 2012
CATEGORY

Legal

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CREDIT INSTITUTIONS IN ARUBA

A license is required

According to Section 4 of the Aruba State Ordinance on the Supervision of the Credit System 1998 (SOSC), no enterprise or institution established in Aruba shall pursue the business of a credit institution unless it has obtained authorization to that end from the Central Bank. No enterprise or institution established outside Aruba shall pursue the business of a credit institution through a branch in Aruba, unless it has obtained authorization from the Central Bank to do so (Section 24(1) SOSC).

A “credit institution” under the SOSC means an enterprise or institution, not being an institution established …
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29
Nov 2011
CATEGORY

Finance

COMMENTS No Comments

CREDIT INSTITUTIONS IN CURACAO AND ST. MAARTEN

A license is required

The National Ordinance on the supervision of banking and credit institutions 1994 (Landsverordening toezicht bank- en kredietwezen, the “NOSB”) of both Curacao and St. Maarten prohibits any one (other than a licensed Credit Institution) from – directly or indirectly – soliciting funds from the public or extending credit to the public (art. 45 NOSB).

It should be noted that the Explanatory Memorandum to the NOSB bestows a wide scope on the term “public”, i.e. anyone other than a licensed Credit Institution. The Central Bank of Curacao and St. Maarten may grant individual exemptions from this prohibition. …
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17
Sep 2011
CATEGORY

Finance

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NON-POSSESSORY PLEDGE UNDER THE LAWS OF ARUBA

A non-possessory pledge requires a deed

Security rights are an important issue, especially in financing transactions. A company may, for example, guarantee the obligations of another company under a certain loan facility. There are several alternatives, one of which will be discussed here.

Under the laws of Aruba there are several kinds of pledges, in particular, the possessory and the non-possessory pledge. In the case of a possessory pledge, the physical control of the assets concerned will be transferred from the owner/borrower to the bank/lender.

In the case of a non-possessory pledge, regarding for example registered shares, the pledge is …
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17
Aug 2010
CATEGORY

Legal

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THE CUSTODY OF SECURITIES IN THE NETHERLANDS CARIBBEAN

Separate legal entity

Generally, securities that must be held by a Netherlands Antilles bank on behalf of its clients will be held by a custodian. In most cases the custodian is either a foundation (‘stichting’) or a wholly owned subsidiary (NV or BV) of the bank.

The scope of the activities of the custodian will be limited to holding shares, bonds, notes, certificates and other securities. The insolvency risk of the custodian is therefore minimized. Alternatively, these securities can also be held in the name of the custodian by independent custody companies abroad, including brokers, agents and sub-custodians. In both …
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05
Dec 2009
CATEGORY

Finance

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NETHERLANDS CARIBBEAN BANKS AND REGULATORY ISSUES

A bank has less freedom than an ordinary legal entity

What would be the requirements, from a regulatory point of view, if a Netherlands Antilles bank wished to sell its entire business or a substantial part thereof? Would it require approval from the Netherlands Antilles Central Bank (de ‘Bank van de Nederlandse Antillen’)?

Generally, if the activity at a bank is characterized as some form of financial reorganization, for example, the prior approval of the Central Bank is required. The bank is also obliged to immediately inform the Central Bank in writing of any resolution for complete or partial liquidation or …
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28
Nov 2009
CATEGORY

Legal

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BES LAW DEVELOPMENTS

Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba (BES)

Within a couple of years, the BES Islands, as public entities, will be part of the country of the Netherlands in the framework of the political restructuring in the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The US dollar will be introduced as the new currency in the BES Islands. Curacao and St. Maarten will each become a country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands and have their own legislation and regulations.

The starting point of the political restructuring is that Dutch legislation will be introduced only gradually into the BES Islands. It has been established that …
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24
Jun 2009
CATEGORY

Legal

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THE OFFERING OF NOTES IN THE DUTCH CARIBBEAN

Only to licensed credit institutions

Any Notes (including rights representing an interest in a Note in global form) that are offered as part of their initial distribution or by way of a re-offering in the Netherlands Antilles, shall, in order to comply with the Netherlands Antilles National Ordinance on the supervision of banking and credit institutions 1994, only be offered, sold, transferred or delivered in the Netherlands Antilles to credit institutions licensed in accordance with the Ordinance or that are in possession of an individual exemption granted by the Central Bank of the Netherlands Antilles.

Insofar as services and/or products …
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14
Feb 2009
CATEGORY

Finance

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EMERGENCY MEASURES FOR CREDIT INSTITUTIONS IN THE DUTCH CARIBBEAN

The Central Bank has certain regulatory powers

Not all banks perform well. Sometimes things go wrong. In the Netherlands Antilles the Central Bank has certain powers to take over control, if necessary. The Central Bank may request the Court of First Instance to subject a bank (credit institution) to the emergency measure pursuant to Article 28 of the National Ordinance on the Supervision of Banking and Credit Institutions 1994.

The court may authorize the Central Bank to transfer all or part of the obligations of the credit institution and to partially or entirely liquidate the credit institution. The authorization shall …
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24
Jun 2008
CATEGORY

Legal

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