SUPERVISION OF BROKERS AND ASSET MANAGERS IN CURACAO

New Ordinance will enter into force in 2017

In the course of 2017, the Curaçao ‘Landsverordening toezicht effectenbemiddelaars en vermogensbeheerders’ (National Ordinance on the supervision of securities brokers and asset managers) will come into force.

The primary aim of the new Ordinance is to introduce a supervisory regime for brokers in the securities business and for managers of assets, in order to raise the operation of the capital markets and other financial markets in Curaçao to the next level, as well as to further protect the position of existing and potential investors in these markets against risks. This objective is …
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10
May 2017
CATEGORY

Finance

COMMENTS No Comments

SUPERVISION OF SECURITIES TRANSACTIONS IN ARUBA

New Ordinance entered into force on 1 January 2017

The Aruba National Ordinance on the Supervision of Securities Transactions (Landsverordening toezicht effectenverkeer; NOSST) entered into force on January the 1st, 2017. With this National Ordinance, a licensing obligation is introduced for stockbrokers, asset managers, investment institutions, managers of investment funds, and operators of a stock exchange, and ongoing supervision on the same.

The Central Bank of Aruba decides on any market access of stockbrokers, asset managers, investment institutions, managers of investment funds, custodians and (operators of) stock exchanges, and supervises them (Section 3 NOSST).

It is forbidden to operate in …
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21
Apr 2017
CATEGORY

Finance

COMMENTS No Comments

DUTCH CARIBBEAN BANKS AND REGULATORY ISSUES

A bank has less freedom than an ordinary legal entity

What would be the requirements, from a regulatory point of view, if a Curaçao or St. Maarten bank wished to sell its entire business or a substantial part thereof? Would it require approval from the Central Bank of Curaçao and St. Maarten (‘Centrale Bank van Curaçao en St. Maarten’)?

Generally, if the activity at a bank is characterized as some form of financial reorganization, for example, the prior approval of the Central Bank is required. The bank is also obliged to immediately inform the Central Bank in writing of any …
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27
Jan 2014
CATEGORY

Finance

COMMENTS No Comments

CREDIT INSTITUTIONS IN THE BES ISLANDS

Strictly regulated

With effect from 1 July 2012, the Financial Markets (BES Islands) Act [Wet financiële markten BES; “Wfm BES”] came into force, with the associated subordinate regulations. The Wfm BES applies to financial institutions in the BES islands (Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba). There are several categories of financial institutions, including credit institutions (banks).

A “credit institution” (kredietinstelling) is a party engaged in the business of obtaining callable funds (opvorderbare gelden) from outside a restricted circle (besloten kring) and from parties other than professional market parties (professionele marktpartijen) and of the extension of loans (kredietuitzettingen) at such party’s (own) …
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13
Nov 2013
CATEGORY

Finance

COMMENTS No Comments

REGULATORY LAWS IN THE BES ISLANDS

There are three regulators

According to the Dutch Central Bank (“DCB”), financial institutions must be sound, reliable and stable to ensure confidence among businesses, consumers and others. DCB states on its website: “In addition to making certain their customers are properly informed about their products and services, these institutions also have a duty of care towards their customers. The financial services industry should also give a high priority to integrity and should never be used for money laundering, terrorist financing, fraud, corruption or other illegal activities. Finally, the market should function properly and there should be adequate market access, with …
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31
Oct 2013
CATEGORY

Finance

COMMENTS No Comments

BANKING SUPERVISION IN CURACAO AND SINT MAARTEN

Prudential rules and requirements

The Central Bank of Curacao and St. Maarten is responsible for the care of the financial system’s health, effected through on and off site inspections of the banking and other financial institutions authorized to operate in Curacao and St. Maarten.

The National ordinance on the supervision of banks and credit institutions provides for requirements with regard to the prudential supervision in general. Such prudential supervision sees to the liquidity and solvency position of a bank.

The legislation provides for reporting requirements that need to be submitted to the Central Bank of Curacao and St. Maarten. On …
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23
Apr 2012
CATEGORY

Legal

COMMENTS No Comments

REGULATORY LEGISLATION IN CURACAO

General requirements on the business operation

Regulatory legislation in Curacao does not distinguish between different kinds of products, such as for instance hedge funds, but is of a more general nature. The regulatory legislation of Curacao applicable to financial institutions is divided into four categories being: credit institutions, institutional investors, investment institutions & administrators and trust service providers.

The authority entrusted with the supervision on the financial institutions mentioned above is the Central Bank of Curacao and Sint Maarten.

The regulatory legislation does provide for general requirements on the business operation of the financial institutes involved. The National Ordinance on …
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12
Mar 2012
CATEGORY

Finance

COMMENTS No Comments

CREDIT INSTITUTIONS IN CURACAO AND ST. MAARTEN

A license is required

The National Ordinance on the supervision of banking and credit institutions 1994 (Landsverordening toezicht bank- en kredietwezen, the “NOSB”) of both Curacao and St. Maarten prohibits any one (other than a licensed Credit Institution) from – directly or indirectly – soliciting funds from the public or extending credit to the public (art. 45 NOSB).

It should be noted that the Explanatory Memorandum to the NOSB bestows a wide scope on the term “public”, i.e. anyone other than a licensed Credit Institution. The Central Bank of Curacao and St. Maarten may grant individual exemptions from this prohibition. …
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17
Sep 2011
CATEGORY

Finance

COMMENTS No Comments

INVESTMENT INSTITUTIONS IN CURACAO AND ST. MAARTEN

Raising money without a license is prohibited

The National Ordinance on the Supervision of Investment Institutions and Administrators 2002 (Landsverordening toezicht beleggingsinstellingen en administrateurs, a.k.a. “NOSIIA”) of both Curacao and St. Maarten prohibits raising, or obtaining, pecuniary means or other property for the purpose of participating in an investment institution that has not been granted a license by the Central Bank of Curacao and St. Maarten, and prohibits  offering participating interests in such an investment institution in or from Curacao or St. Maarten respectively.

Investment institutions may be exempted from this prohibition if the moneys or goods to be exchanged for …
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07
Sep 2011
CATEGORY

Finance

COMMENTS No Comments

THE RHYTHM AND BLUES OF CURACAO CONTRACT LAW

Principle of fairness and reasonableness

When considered in the perspective of the laws of Curacao, the reliance on or the enforcement of contractual terms and conditions contained in any agreement, may under certain circumstances be contrary to the overriding principle of ‘fairness and reasonableness’ (redelijkheid en billijkheid) which governs the relationship between the parties to an agreement. Prof. Tjittes calls this good faith principle the Rhythm & Blues of our legal system.

Civil law systems such as the Dutch, French, German, or our system, explicitly espouse and apply this principle, whereas common law systems (e.g. English common law) do not …
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07
Aug 2011
CATEGORY

Legal

COMMENTS No Comments

TRUST SERVICE PROVIDERS IN CURACAO

TSPs are supervised by the Central Bank

Many international group structures include one or more Curacao legal entities or partnerships. The main reasons for this are the internationally competitive conditions for business development in the area of corporate law and the tax system in Curacao, as well as the well-developed professional financial services industry. Trust Service Providers (“TSPs”) are involved in setting up and maintaining such structures. TSPs conduct the management of legal entities and partnerships (“client companies”) on behalf of other enterprises. Management usually involves the TSP acting as manager of the client company and providing a correspondence address …
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21
May 2011
CATEGORY

Legal

COMMENTS No Comments

THE UTOPIAN LAWYER

Dare to dream!

A high degree of civilisation must be expected from the ideal advocate (attorney; lawyer) as well as a high degree of learning and expertise. A practical attitude, language skill and rhetorical ability form part of the standard baggage of the utopian advocate. He is not only feared for his razor-sharp analyses, for breaking through reasoning utterly lacking any logic and for turning the attackers of the rule of law to stone, but both friend as well as foe respect his disposition as well as his expertise.

Quite often the utopian advocate will get the feeling that in …
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13
Apr 2011
COMMENTS No Comments