CROSS-BORDER CONVERSION OF CURACAO LEGAL ENTITIES

Inbound and outbound

Since 10-10-10 Curacao has its own Book 2 of the Civil Code. This applies equally to Sint Maarten. The BES Islands (Bonaire, Saba and St. Eustatius) also have their own Book 2 Civil Code, that (also) differs from Book 2 of the Civil Code in the Netherlands. As from the said date, seen from the perspective of Book 2 of the Curacao Civil Code, St. Maarten and Bonaire – just as had already applied to Aruba for quite some time – are to a certain extent to be considered as ‘a foreign country’. I say here ‘to …
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21
Sep 2017
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

TYPES OF LIABILITY IN ARUBA

A three-part distinction

With regard to liability a three-part distinction can be made. The first distinction relates to the basis of the liability: liability pursuant to a contractual relationship (the attributable failure in this respect) and liability pursuant to a wrongful act.

Another distinction relates to the personal liability (thus for the party’s own actions or omissions) and vicarious and/or strict liability: liability for or the acts and omissions of others (vicarious liability) or liability for certain things that happen (strict liability).

For example, employers can be held vicariously liable for certain actions of their employees. According to the Aruba …
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06
May 2016
CATEGORY

Legal

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IMPACT OF LIABILITY TO THE DIRECTOR OF THE DIRECTOR

Curaçao law cannot ‘break through’ to a legal relationship governed by foreign law

Under Section 2:17 subsection 1 of the Curaçao Civil Code, the liability of a legal entity as a managing director of another legal entity (the direct or 1st degree director) also rests jointly and severally on each person who at the time this liability arose for the legal entity was its managing director (the indirect or 2nd degree director). It applies to this indirect managing director as it applies to the direct managing director that he will not be liable if he can prove that he cannot …
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01
Apr 2016
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

TYPES OF LIABILITY IN CURACAO

A three-part distinction

With regard to liability a three-part distinction can be made. The first distinction relates to the basis of the liability: liability pursuant to a contractual relationship (the attributable failure in this respect) and liability pursuant to a wrongful act.

Another distinction relates to the personal liability (thus for the party’s own actions or omissions) and vicarious and/or strict liability: liability for or the acts and omissions of others (vicarious liability) or liability for certain things that happen (strict liability).

For example, employers can be held vicariously liable for certain actions of their employees. According to the Curacao …
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18
Oct 2012
CATEGORY

Legal

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CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND BAD HABITS

Letter to the editor of The Daily Herald

Dear Editor,

According to Leroy de Weever (DP), he doesn’t need a Corporate Governance Council to come tell him how to do his job. He wants to disband the Corporate Governance Council as soon as possible.

Corporate governance rules were designed to protect companies from politicians, in particular from the government. Government-owned companies should be kept out of the political sphere as much as possible, so that they may benefit from commercial, businesslike and market-oriented management. In doing so, they also run less of a risk of being milked …
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23
Dec 2011
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT AGREEMENT AND REDUNDANCY

Termination by mutual consent is preferable

In general, Curacao labor law provides for the following ways to terminate an employment agreement: (i) termination by giving notice, (ii) dissolution by the Courts and (iii) termination by mutual consent.

Prior to giving notice, an employer must obtain a permit from the Director of the Directorate of Labor Affairs. The Director will determine whether there is a valid reason for the dismissal. In the case of redundancy the employer is obliged to provide a detailed financial justification thereof. If in agreement, the Director of the Directorate of Labor Affairs may issue a permit …
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23
Aug 2011
CATEGORY

Legal

COMMENTS No Comments

ELECTRONIC AGREEMENTS IN CARACAO AND SINT MAARTEN

The Dutch Caribbean digital signature exists for over 10 years

The Curacao Ordinance on Electronic Agreements a.k.a. the Curacao Ordinance on agreements concluded electronically (Landsverordening overeenkomsten langs elektronische weg) became effective on 1 January 2001. The Ordinance in St. Maarten is similar to the one in Curacao.

The Ordinance provides that an electronic signature shall have the same legal effect as a hand-written signature, and may be admitted as evidence in legal proceedings. An electronic signature is described as electronic data which are attached to or have a logical association with other electronic data and are used as a tool …
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11
Feb 2011
CATEGORY

Legal

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PROPOSED REVIEW DUTCH CARIBBEAN CORPORATE CODE

Various proposals not yes discussed here

The prohibition of appointing Supervisory Directors besides a ‘one-tier Board’ will be deleted (Article 2:19 paragraph 1 proposed bill). Supervisory Directors being a legal entity are allowed to a limited extent (Article 2:19 paragraph 3 proposed bill).

For the NV and the BV the law determines who has the right to attend meetings (Article 2:129/229 proposed bill). Unfortunately, in this connection no attention is given to the holders of depositary receipts for shares. In the case of concurred depositary receipts (i.e. certificates released with the co-operation of the corporation) I would prefer to grant the holders …
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14
Dec 2010
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

PROPOSED REVIEW DUTCH CARIBBEAN LEGISLATION ON CONFLICTING INTEREST

The proposed bill gives shareholders more freedom

Earlier in 2010, a draft bill was proposed to amend the Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of Curacao, St. Maarten, Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba (which formerly constituted the Netherlands Antilles). Among other things, the provisions with regard to conflicting interest have been thoroughly reviewed and strongly curtailed.

The basic rule provides that the authority with regard to legal acts in connection with lawsuits against a Managing Director rests with the Supervisory Board. If the company has no Supervisory Board, this authority rests with the general meeting or a person or body …
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06
Dec 2010
CATEGORY

Corporate

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PROPOSED REVIEW DUTCH CARIBBEAN LEGISLATION ON DIRECTORS’ LIABILITY IN BANKRUPTCY

Defects detected in the annual accounts drawn up may be relevant

Earlier in 2010, a draft bill was proposed to amend the Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of Curacao, St. Maarten, Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba (which formerly constituted the Netherlands Antilles). Hopefully, the Bill comes into force in 2011. Among other things, the provisions with regard to Managing Director’s liability have been improved.

In the event of the bankruptcy of the legal entity each Managing Director is jointly and severally liable to the estate for the deficit being the amount of the debts insofar as they cannot be …
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24
Nov 2010
CATEGORY

Corporate

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THE DISMANTLING OF THE NETHERLANDS ANTILLES

The Country known as the Netherlands Antilles will disappear as of 10-10-10

The country, the Netherlands Antilles, consists of Bonaire, Curacao, St. Maarten, St. Eustatius and Saba, and forms part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. On 10 October 2010 the Netherlands Antilles will no longer exist. Two new countries will be born on that date: the country Curacao and the country St. Maarten. Both new countries will be part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; however, they will each have their own government and legislature. The island of Aruba gained similar autonomy in 1986.

The legislation currently in place …
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30
Sep 2010
CATEGORY

Legal

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THE DUTCH CARIBBEAN INCORPORATION DOCTRINE

The courts apply the law of the state where the legal entity was incorporated

The Netherlands Antilles adheres to the Incorporation Doctrine (Netherlands Antilles State Ordinance of 9 September 1960, which entered into force on the 10th of September 1960, P.B. 1960, 166). According to this doctrine, the internal affairs of a corporation are governed solely by the laws of the state in which it was formally incorporated. This doctrine was confirmed in the cases of Natco Trust v. mr Thesseling q.q., Hoge Raad (Dutch Supreme Court) 20 April 1990, NJ 1991, 560; TAR-Justicia 1 (1991), p. 24-35, and IBC …
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31
Aug 2010
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments