ADVOCATENTUCHTRECHT

Enkele recente uitspraken

De Raad van Toezicht op de advocatuur in Curaçao, de tuchtrechter in eerste aanleg, heeft op 20 mei 2016 uitspraak in diverse zaken gedaan. Enkele overwegingen zijn interessant om hier te delen.

Een (voormalige) cliënt dient een klacht in tegen een advocaat, omdat de advocaat heeft geweigerd een procedure inzake schadevergoeding te beginnen. Een advocaat is, zo overweegt de Raad, niet verplicht om de opdracht van een cliënt om een zaak te beginnen uit te voeren (RvT 76829 – K). Als een advocaat van mening is dat een zaak geen kans van slagen heeft, moet hij dat …
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23
May 2016
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Legal

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OVERZICHT PRIVAATRECHTELIJKE RECHTSPERSONEN

Aruba, Curaçao, St. Maarten en de BES-eilanden

Aruba

Aruba kent de naamloze vennootschap (NV), de Aruba Vrijgestelde Vennootschap (AVV), de Vennootschap met Beperkte Aansprakelijkheid (VBA), de vereniging, de coöperatieve vereniging, de onderlinge waarborgmaatschappij en de stichting. De NV is geregeld in het Wetboek van Koophandel van Aruba en daarin is sedert 1 juli 1988 ook de AVV geregeld. Op 1 januari 2009 is de VBA geïntroduceerd met het van kracht worden van een gelijknamige landsverordening. Bij de VBA is het mogelijk om te kiezen voor een monistisch (one tier) of dualistisch (two tier) bestuursmodel.

De vereniging is geregeld in de …
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19
Apr 2016
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Corporate

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IMPACT OF LIABILITY TO THE DIRECTOR OF THE DIRECTOR

Curaçao law cannot ‘break through’ to a legal relationship governed by foreign law

Under Section 2:17 subsection 1 of the Curaçao Civil Code, the liability of a legal entity as a managing director of another legal entity (the direct or 1st degree director) also rests jointly and severally on each person who at the time this liability arose for the legal entity was its managing director (the indirect or 2nd degree director). It applies to this indirect managing director as it applies to the direct managing director that he will not be liable if he can prove that he cannot …
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01
Apr 2016
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LANDSVERORDENING OPTIMALISERING OVERHEIDSGELIEERDE ENTITEITEN

Landsverordening bange bestuurders?

Hierna volgen samengevat enkele punten uit de PAO-cursus die ik op 17 maart 2016 heb gegeven. De hele tekst is te vinden door hier te klikken. Op pagina 14 begint het stuk over het ontwerp van de landsverordening.

Op 15 september 2015 is het ontwerp van de ‘Landsverordening optimalisering overheidsgelieerde entiteiten’ bij de Staten van Curaçao ingediend. De titel van het ontwerp klinkt goed: wie zal er immers tegen optimalisering zijn? Helaas is de inhoud van het ontwerp (beduidend) minder aantrekkelijk dan de titel.

Er komen specifieke normen voor Boek 2 BW-vennootschappen waarin het …
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18
Mar 2016
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CHAMBERS GLOBAL 2016 LEGAL RANKINGS RELEASED

Karel Frielink ranked Band 1 again

Once again I have been selected as a ranked lawyer in Chambers Global 2016 identifying me as one of the best lawyers in the Dutch Caribbean (click here).

The Chambers Guides have been ranking the best law firms and lawyers since 1990, and now cover 185 jurisdictions throughout the world. Chambers ranks lawyers and law firms on several factors and considerations, all of which are investigated by their large team of more than 140 researchers. Today, Chambers and Partners released the 2016 edition, also covering the Dutch Caribbean.

Individual lawyers are …
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17
Mar 2016
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Legal

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PRELIMINARY RELIEF PROCEEDINGS

When a case needs an urgent decision

The procedure for provisional measures in summary proceedings (kort geding), a.k.a. preliminary relief proceedings or interlocutory proceedings, is an interim injunction procedure before the court. Such proceedings, under Dutch Caribbean law, are aimed at obtaining temporary instructions from the court, not at receiving a final decision in the case.

These proceedings are characterized by their more or less summary character and their relatively quick nature. There is a clear relationship to a procedure on the merits, which always may be instituted and sometimes even must be followed. Provisional measures that are prescribed in …
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11
Mar 2016
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Legal

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THE BINDING EFFECT OF JUDGMENTS

Limited to the parties involved in the proceedings

Court decisions, even decisions by the Dutch Supreme Court, are not binding on courts when deciding future cases. However, the Code of Civil Procedure prevents parties from litigating twice on the same legal issue. The principle that a final judgment of a competent court is conclusive upon the parties in any subsequent litigation involving the same cause of action is known as ‘res judicata ’.

A Dutch court case is described below illustrating this principle: Utrecht District Court of 19 March 2009 (NJF 2009/291).

In initial litigation, the claimant had sought payment …
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02
Mar 2016
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BRIBERY

A criminal act

With regard to anti-corruption the Criminal Codes of Aruba, Curaçao, St. Maarten and the BES-islands include criminal acts such as fraud, bribery and abuse of authorities. The bribery offence closely resembles the bribery provisions under the Dutch Criminal Code. The Codes also stipulate regulations on criminal acts committed by judges, ministers, members of Parliament and civil servants. Amendments were introduced to the Criminal Code specifically to implement the Anti-Bribery Convention. The bribery offences in the Criminal Codes mirror very closely those in the Dutch Criminal Code.

The relevant anti-bribery provisions are integrated in the Dutch Caribbean Criminal …
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25
Feb 2016
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CONSULTATIE CODE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE NEDERLAND

Commissie presenteert voorstel

De (Nederlandse) Monitoring Commissie Corporate Governance Code heeft vandaag een zogeheten consultatiedocument gepresenteerd. Daarin staan voorstellen voor herziening van de Nederlandse corporate governance code.

Alle belanghebbenden en geïnteresseerden worden uitgenodigd om een reactie uit te brengen op dit consultatiedocument en deel te nemen aan het publieke debat omtrent de herziening van de Code. Het doel is om met de verkregen input en bevindingen uit de consultatiefase te komen tot een herziening van de Code.

Kennisneming van de voorstellen (dat kan door hier te klikken) kan ook voor de discussies in Aruba, Curaçao en St. …
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11
Feb 2016
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TRADE-BASED MONEY LAUNDERING

More Trade Transparency Units Needed

Smuggling and trade fraud are on the rise, according to Viêt Nam News (27 October 2015). The Telegraph reports that the authorities in China have arrested 21 people on suspicion of defrauding almost one million Chinese investors of 50bn yuan (£5.3 billion) after an online peer-to-peer lender turned out to be a giant Ponzi scheme (1 February 2016). Money laundering and fraud seem to be on the increase. Trade-Based Money Laundering (TBML) is one of the big threats facing us today.

According to Premium Times (21 December 2015; Read the rest »

02
Feb 2016
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Legal

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CONSOLIDATED BANKRUPTCY

Creditors, stay alert!

Aruba, Curaçao, St. Maarten and the BES-islands (Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba) will together be referred to as the Dutch Caribbean, although each has its own set of laws.

Bankruptcy in general serves the purpose of liquidating assets of a particular person or legal entity and distributing the proceeds among the combined creditors. Sometimes, several companies belonging to one and the same group of companies go bankrupt. In principle, the trustee in bankruptcy has to administer and liquidate the assets of each of the bankrupt estates individually.

When multiple companies of the same group go bankrupt, it …
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01
Feb 2016
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Legal

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DISCHARGING THE MANAGEMENT BOARD

Only for matters evident from the accounts

The shareholders of a Dutch Caribbean limited liability company (NV or BV) may provide a discharge (décharge) to members of the management board for matters evident from the annual accounts, or matters otherwise made known to the general shareholders meeting. This is a standard item on the agenda for shareholders meetings at which a company’s annual accounts are adopted.

The aim of this discharge is that the company generally has no longer a legal cause of action against a management board member.

The effect of a discharge is limited. A discharge does not …
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18
Jan 2016
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Corporate

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