IMPACT OF LIABILITY TO THE DIRECTOR OF THE DIRECTOR

Curaçao law cannot ‘break through’ to a legal relationship governed by foreign law

Under Section 2:17 subsection 1 of the Curaçao Civil Code, the liability of a legal entity as a managing director of another legal entity (the direct or 1st degree director) also rests jointly and severally on each person who at the time this liability arose for the legal entity was its managing director (the indirect or 2nd degree director). It applies to this indirect managing director as it applies to the direct managing director that he will not be liable if he can prove that he cannot …
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01
Apr 2016
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

NO DERIVATIVE ACTION IN CURACAO

A claim based on tort is possible though

Curaçao corporate law does not provide for any derivative suit mechanism (and neither do the laws of Aruba, St. Maarten and the BES-islands). This matter was first decided in the cases of Poot v. ABP, Hoge Raad (Dutch Supreme Court) 2 December 1994, NJ 1995, 288, and Constance et al. v. Noro et al., Gemeenschappelijk Hof van Justitie van de Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba (Joint Court of Appeal of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba) 13 December 1994, SJD 1994, 498.

However, a shareholder suffering derivative damage may commence proceedings against, for instance, …
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02
Sep 2015
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

DUTIES OF A MANAGING DIRECTOR OF A DUTCH CARIBBEAN NV OR BV

Acting in the best interests of the company

Although not explicitly provided for in Book 2 of the Civil Codes of Curacao, St. Maarten and the BES-islands (Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba) (“CC”), it is considered a general rule of corporate law that the management board (a.k.a. board of directors) must act in the best interests of the company (an NV or BV) in the performance of its duties, even when acting on instructions from others (e.g. shareholders). This includes the interests of the shareholders, the employees and, according to most legal writers, the creditors of the company.

The management …
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10
Aug 2015
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

QUASI DIRECTOR OR JUST THE BOSS?

This depends on the facts

If a legal entity (an NV or BV comes to mind) becomes bankrupt, any director (according to its Articles) becomes jointly and severally liable for the deficit of the bankrupt’s estate if it is apparent that there has been improper management and it is plausible that this was a major cause of the bankruptcy.

The Act provides that a person who (during the relevant period) determined or co-determined the policy of the legal entity as if he was a director is considered equivalent to a director. This is also called a quasi director. For instance, …
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11
Apr 2015
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

LIABILITY OF A TRUST DIRECTOR

No lighter liability system

The National Ordinance on the supervision of Trust Service Providers (Landsverordening toezicht trustwezen) does not provide anything with regard to the liability of trust offices (a.k.a. management services companies) or their representatives acting as a director under the Articles (of Association) of a legal entity (for instance a company limited by shares (‘NV‘), private company with limited liability (‘BV‘) or foundation). The question is whether this liability is governed by the usual rules in this area. Because the trust office as a director of a legal entity usually fulfills a different role from a director – …
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28
Mar 2015
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

REVISED SINT MAARTEN LEGISLATION ON DIRECTORS’ LIABILITY IN BANKRUPTCY

Improper bookkeeping may result in liability

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force. Among other things, the provisions with regard to Managing Director’s liability have been improved.

In the event of the bankruptcy of the legal entity each Managing Director is jointly and severally liable to the estate for the deficit being the amount of the debts insofar as they cannot be settled by liquidation of the other assets if apparent improper management had been involved and it is plausible that this is a major cause of the …
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24
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

DE ZORGPLICHT VAN PROFESSIONELE PARTIJEN

Naleving van de zorgplicht is een vorm van risicobeheersing

Google het woord ‘zorgplicht’ en constateer dat je dit begrip in relatie tot uiteenlopende onderwerpen tegenkomt: sport, kinderopvang, leerlingen, cliënten, werknemers, gevangenen, afvalwaterzorg, krijgsgevangenen, hemelwaterzorg, huurauto’s, grondwaterzorg, bancaire en financiële dienstverlening, enz. enz. enz.

Ons recht is met de zorgplicht doordrenkt. Dat is niet iets van de afgelopen jaren. Een begrip als de ‘zorg van een goed huisvader’ treffen we al eeuwen aan. En die zorgplicht betreft, zoals we al zagen, allerlei uiteenlopende situaties. Ik noem er nog een paar: de zorg van een goed vruchtgebruiker, de zorg van de arts …
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13
Mar 2014
CATEGORY

Finance

COMMENTS No Comments

DIRECTORS’ LIABILITY REVISITED

People keep asking questions about this topic

Generally, in Curaçao (as well as in Aruba, St. Maarten and the BES islands) liability may arise in the event a managing director is found to be seriously negligent (‘hem een ernstig verwijt kan worden gemaakt’) in fulfilling his tasks as member of the management board of a legal entity (NV, BV, foundation or association).

Section 2:8 subsection 3 of the Curaçao Civil Code (‘CCC‘) provides that in performing its duties the management board is focused on the interest of the legal entity and its associated business operations, insofar as they exist. This …
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10
Mar 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

PROPOSED REVIEW DUTCH CARIBBEAN LEGISLATION ON DIRECTORS’ LIABILITY IN BANKRUPTCY

Defects detected in the annual accounts drawn up may be relevant

Earlier in 2010, a draft bill was proposed to amend the Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of Curacao, St. Maarten, Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba (which formerly constituted the Netherlands Antilles). Hopefully, the Bill comes into force in 2011. Among other things, the provisions with regard to Managing Director’s liability have been improved.

In the event of the bankruptcy of the legal entity each Managing Director is jointly and severally liable to the estate for the deficit being the amount of the debts insofar as they cannot be …
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24
Nov 2010
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

DIRECTORS’ LIABILITY IN THE DUTCH CARIBBEAN

Personal and several liability

The members of the Board of Directors are personally and severally liable towards the NV (or BV, as the case may be) for any loss caused by the improper performance of duties. Each member of the Board who proves that he cannot be blamed for such improper performance and that the activities concerned fall outside the scope of activities addressed to him, and that he has not been negligent in taking steps to avert the related consequences, is not liable (Article 2:14 Section 4 Netherlands Antilles Civil Code; NACC). Therefore, a division of tasks among such …
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04
Aug 2010
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

AMSTERDAM COURT OF APPEAL ON LIABILITY OF TRUST DIRECTORS

Trust directors not treated differently from regular directors

The board of directors of an NV or BV may contractually agree to a limitation of its powers to manage the company. Such arrangements are typical for trust offices engaged by a foreign ultimate beneficiary to render services to ‘his’ company, i.e. the client of a trust office. In principle, any contract a board of directors enters into binds the board and thereby limits its power. However, notwithstanding such a contract, it is still the board of directors that is in charge of managing the affairs of the company.

A distinction should …
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29
Oct 2009
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

LIABILITY FOR NOT OR LATE FILING FOR BANKRUPTCY IN THE DUTCH CARIBBEAN

No obligation to file for bankruptcy

There is no statutory obligation in the Netherlands Antilles for managing directors of a company to file for the bankruptcy of the company. Managing directors are therefore not responsible to the creditors for damages sustained by them as a result of any ‘late’ filing for bankruptcy. There is no such obligation for shareholders of a company either. A liquidator of a company shall, however, file for bankruptcy if he finds that the liabilities are likely to exceed the assets, unless all known creditors agree in writing that the liquidation be continued on a voluntary …
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19
Aug 2008
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments