CURAÇAOS ENQUÊTERECHT

Nederlandse rechtspraak relevant

De Hoge Raad heeft op 11 november 2016 een beschikking gegeven in een enquêtezaak naar het recht van Curaçao (ECLI:NL:HR:2016:2574). Het verzoek van een partij tot het houden van een enquête is afgewezen door het Gemeenschappelijk Hof van Justitie van Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten en van Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba bij beschikking van 26 mei 2015. Tegen deze beschikking is cassatie ingesteld.

Er waren in cassatie twee hoofdvragen aan de orde. De eerste vraag is of de (oorspronkelijke) verzoeker die door verwatering van zijn aandelenbelang niet meer voldeed aan de wettelijke criteria, desondanks een verzoek tot …
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14
Nov 2016
CATEGORY

Corporate

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ENQUETERECHT INZAKE SNS REAAL

Bevoegd hoewel niet aan de kapitaaleis is voldaan

In een bij de Hoge Raad aanhangige cassatiezaak heeft Advocaat-Generaal Timmerman op 24 juni 2016 geadviseerd de uitspraak van de Ondernemingskamer in de enquêteprocedure inzake SNS Reaal niet te vernietigen (ECLI:NL:PHR:2016:536). In de OK-uitspraak werden de voormalige aandeelhouders van SNS Reaal bevoegd geacht tot het indienen van een enquêteverzoek, ondanks dat zij ten tijde van het indienen van het verzoek niet voldeden aan de wettelijke kapitaaleis.

In mijn noot bij de uitspraak van de Rechtbank Amsterdam van 15 januari 2015 (JOR 2015, 73) in de zaak van Stichting Beheer versus SNS en …
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30
Jun 2016
CATEGORY

Corporate

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DISCHARGING THE MANAGEMENT BOARD

Only for matters evident from the accounts

The shareholders of a Dutch Caribbean limited liability company (NV or BV) may provide a discharge (décharge) to members of the management board for matters evident from the annual accounts, or matters otherwise made known to the general shareholders meeting. This is a standard item on the agenda for shareholders meetings at which a company’s annual accounts are adopted.

The aim of this discharge is that the company generally has no longer a legal cause of action against a management board member.

The effect of a discharge is limited. A discharge does not …
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18
Jan 2016
CATEGORY

Corporate

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NEW CORPORATE CODE SINT MAARTEN

Various matters not yet discussed here

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force. The prohibition of appointing Supervisory Directors besides a ‘one-tier Board’ has been deleted (Article 2:19 paragraph 1 Corporate Code). Supervisory Directors being a legal entity are allowed to a limited extent (Article 2:19 paragraph 3 Corporate Code).

For the NV and the BV the law determines who has the right to attend meetings (Article 2:129/229 Corporate Code). Unfortunately, in this connection no attention is given to the holders of depositary receipts for shares. In the …
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31
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

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AMENDED SINT MAARTEN LEGISLATION ON CONFLICTING INTEREST

The new law gives shareholders more freedom

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force. Among other things, the provisions with regard to conflicting interest have been thoroughly reviewed and strongly curtailed.

The basic rule provides that the authority with regard to legal acts in connection with lawsuits against a Managing Director rests with the Supervisory Board. If the company has no Supervisory Board, this authority rests with the general meeting or a person or body to be appointed by the general meeting for that case. With regard to …
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27
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

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REVISED SINT MAARTEN LEGISLATION ON DIRECTORS’ LIABILITY IN BANKRUPTCY

Improper bookkeeping may result in liability

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force. Among other things, the provisions with regard to Managing Director’s liability have been improved.

In the event of the bankruptcy of the legal entity each Managing Director is jointly and severally liable to the estate for the deficit being the amount of the debts insofar as they cannot be settled by liquidation of the other assets if apparent improper management had been involved and it is plausible that this is a major cause of the …
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24
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

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NEW SINT MAARTEN LEGISLATION ON CORPORATE REPRESENTATION

Restrictions in managing authority work through into the representative authority

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force.

Restrictions of the managing authority can arise from a by-law or a corporate agreement. Individual Managing Directors exercise their powers with due observance of the resolutions of the Management Board (Article 2:8 paragraph 2 Corporate Code). Subject to restrictions arising from the law or the Articles of Association, the legal entity is represented by the Management Board. If there are multiple Managing Directors the legal entity is represented by each Managing …
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20
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

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OUTBOUND MERGER INTRODUCED IN SINT MAARTEN

Outbound mergers now possible

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force.

The possibility already existed that in connection with a merger, a foreign legal entity as the disappearing legal entity merges with a comparable legal form of the Corporate Code of St. Maarten on the condition that the law governing that foreign legal entity is not incompatible with the merger and the manner in which it is brought about (Article 2:323a BW; ‘inbound ’).

It has now also become possible that a legal entity within the sense of the …
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18
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

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INQUIRY PROCEDURE INTRODUCED IN SINT MAARTEN

The Joint Court is the forum of choice for corporate disputes

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force. The new legislation introduces a so-called inquiry procedure for, amongst others, limited liability companies. The corporate inquiry procedure (a.k.a. investigation proceedings) can result in a court ordered investigation into the affairs of a corporation. In Curaçao the revised Corporate Code took effect as of January 1, 2012.

Shareholders of such a corporation (i.e. an NV or BV) may file a petition with the Joint Court of Justice of Aruba, Curacao …
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14
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

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LITIGATION IN THE DUTCH CARIBBEAN

If you need a troubleshooter in your corner

The civil court system in the Dutch Caribbean (Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, St. Maarten, St. Eustatius and Saba) consists of three tiers; first instance cases are brought before the Court of First Instance. Appeal cases are brought before the Joint Court of Appeal. When all normal appeal procedures have been exhausted, cassation cases can be brought before the Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (Hoge Raad) in The Hague in the Netherlands.

All adversarial proceedings in the Dutch Caribbean shall be initiated by means of a petition to the Court of First Instance. …
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19
Feb 2014
CATEGORY

Legal

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GOVERNMENT-OWNED COMPANIES

Opposing views on political influence

Few people would argue that the rules issued by the state (government) must also be correctly and strictly observed by that same state. It cannot be well conceived that, for example, the police and Public Prosecutor’s Office (as instruments of the state) should be allowed to violate the law with impunity.

Though there may be very different opinions about the nature and the role of the state (particularly from a philosophical and jurisprudential viewpoint), here we address the question of how we should consider government-owned companies, and in particular, what level of influence the government …
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17
Feb 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

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THE INCORPORATION OF A CURACAO LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY

Incorporating an NV or BV is not a hassle

The act on corporate law (Book 2 Curaçao Civil Code) governs the NV (‘public limited liability company’) and BV (‘private limited liability company’). These companies can be used for group finance or holding activities, (international) joint-ventures, funds, structured finance, as a Curaçao Trust and for “plain-vanilla” (local) activities.

A notarial deed is required for the formation of an NV or BV and for any amendment to articles of association (a.k.a. articles of incorporation). Formation can however, be very quick (within one or two days if necessary) and does not require many …
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14
Feb 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

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