AMENDED SINT MAARTEN LEGISLATION ON CONFLICTING INTEREST

The new law gives shareholders more freedom

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force. Among other things, the provisions with regard to conflicting interest have been thoroughly reviewed and strongly curtailed.

The basic rule provides that the authority with regard to legal acts in connection with lawsuits against a Managing Director rests with the Supervisory Board. If the company has no Supervisory Board, this authority rests with the general meeting or a person or body to be appointed by the general meeting for that case. With regard to …
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27
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

REVISED SINT MAARTEN LEGISLATION ON DIRECTORS’ LIABILITY IN BANKRUPTCY

Improper bookkeeping may result in liability

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force. Among other things, the provisions with regard to Managing Director’s liability have been improved.

In the event of the bankruptcy of the legal entity each Managing Director is jointly and severally liable to the estate for the deficit being the amount of the debts insofar as they cannot be settled by liquidation of the other assets if apparent improper management had been involved and it is plausible that this is a major cause of the …
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24
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

NEW SINT MAARTEN LEGISLATION ON CORPORATE REPRESENTATION

Restrictions in managing authority work through into the representative authority

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force.

Restrictions of the managing authority can arise from a by-law or a corporate agreement. Individual Managing Directors exercise their powers with due observance of the resolutions of the Management Board (Article 2:8 paragraph 2 Corporate Code). Subject to restrictions arising from the law or the Articles of Association, the legal entity is represented by the Management Board. If there are multiple Managing Directors the legal entity is represented by each Managing …
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20
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

OUTBOUND MERGER INTRODUCED IN SINT MAARTEN

Outbound mergers now possible

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force.

The possibility already existed that in connection with a merger, a foreign legal entity as the disappearing legal entity merges with a comparable legal form of the Corporate Code of St. Maarten on the condition that the law governing that foreign legal entity is not incompatible with the merger and the manner in which it is brought about (Article 2:323a BW; ‘inbound ’).

It has now also become possible that a legal entity within the sense of the …
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18
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

INQUIRY PROCEDURE INTRODUCED IN SINT MAARTEN

The Joint Court is the forum of choice for corporate disputes

As per April 1, 2014 the amended Corporate Code (Book 2 Civil Code) of St. Maarten entered into force. The new legislation introduces a so-called inquiry procedure for, amongst others, limited liability companies. The corporate inquiry procedure (a.k.a. investigation proceedings) can result in a court ordered investigation into the affairs of a corporation. In Curaçao the revised Corporate Code took effect as of January 1, 2012.

Shareholders of such a corporation (i.e. an NV or BV) may file a petition with the Joint Court of Justice of Aruba, Curacao …
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14
May 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

GRENSOVERSCHRIJDENDE OMZETTING VAN EEN NV OF BV

Omzetting kan niet binnen het Koninkrijk

Gelijk een natuurlijke personen (tot op zekere hoogte) van geaardheid kan veranderen en kan worden omgebouwd, hoeft ook een Curaçaose NV of BV zijn dagen niet noodzakelijk in de bij oprichting gekozen vorm te slijten. Een NV of BV kan zich omzetten in een andere rechtsvorm in Curaçao of in een buitenlandse rechtsvorm met als gevolg dat de NV of BV uit de Curaçaose rechtssfeer verdwijnt. Vroeger werd in dit verband over zetelverplaatsing gesproken.

De grensoverschrijdende omzetting is een aparte figuur, want de vennootschap is in het ene land opgericht en zet zich dan om …
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11
Mar 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

GOVERNMENT-OWNED COMPANIES

Opposing views on political influence

Few people would argue that the rules issued by the state (government) must also be correctly and strictly observed by that same state. It cannot be well conceived that, for example, the police and Public Prosecutor’s Office (as instruments of the state) should be allowed to violate the law with impunity.

Though there may be very different opinions about the nature and the role of the state (particularly from a philosophical and jurisprudential viewpoint), here we address the question of how we should consider government-owned companies, and in particular, what level of influence the government …
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17
Feb 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

THE INCORPORATION OF A CURACAO LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY

Incorporating an NV or BV is not a hassle

The act on corporate law (Book 2 Curaçao Civil Code) governs the NV (‘public limited liability company’) and BV (‘private limited liability company’). These companies can be used for group finance or holding activities, (international) joint-ventures, funds, structured finance, as a Curaçao Trust and for “plain-vanilla” (local) activities.

A notarial deed is required for the formation of an NV or BV and for any amendment to articles of association (a.k.a. articles of incorporation). Formation can however, be very quick (within one or two days if necessary) and does not require many …
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14
Feb 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

CONSULTATIE GRENSOVERSCHRIJDENDE OMZETTING

Voorstel wetswijziging in Nederland

Vandaag is in Nederland ter consultatie een Voorontwerp grensoverschrijdende omzetting kapitaalvennootschappen gepresenteerd.

Het ambtelijk voorontwerp bevat een regeling waarmee voorwaarden worden gesteld voordat een grensoverschrijdende omzetting van een naamloze of besloten vennootschap in een buitenlandse kapitaalvennootschap kan plaatsvinden (outbound) en omgekeerd (inbound). Voorts bevat het voorontwerp een wijziging van de regeling voor werknemersmedezeggenschap in geval van grensoverschrijdende fusies van kapitaalvennootschappen.

Een grensoverschrijdende omzetting kan de belangen van crediteuren, (minderheids-) aandeelhouders en werknemers van de om te zetten NV of BV schaden. Om deze belangen te beschermen, bevat de regeling voorwaarden voordat een grensoverschrijdende …
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31
Jan 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

GRENSOVERSCHRIJDENDE FUSIE EN OMZETTING SINDS 10-10-10

Publicatie in het Caribisch Juristenblad

In het Caribisch Juristenblad (2013/4, p. 3-9) verscheen mijn artikel Grensoverschrijdende fusie en omzetting na 10-10-’10.

De staatkundige herziening binnen het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden die op 10 oktober 2010 zijn beslag heeft gekregen, is ook van belang voor de grensoverschrijdende fusie en de grensoverschrijdende omzetting van kapitaalvennootschappen (NV’s en BV’s). De bestaande regelgeving maakt fusie en omzetting binnen het Koninkrijk nodeloos ingewikkeld. Daarom wordt voor harmonisatie gepleit.

Karel Frielink Attorney (Lawyer) / Partner

(30 January 2014)

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30
Jan 2014
CATEGORY

Corporate

COMMENTS No Comments

CREDIT INSTITUTIONS IN THE BES ISLANDS

Strictly regulated

With effect from 1 July 2012, the Financial Markets (BES Islands) Act [Wet financiële markten BES; “Wfm BES”] came into force, with the associated subordinate regulations. The Wfm BES applies to financial institutions in the BES islands (Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba). There are several categories of financial institutions, including credit institutions (banks).

A “credit institution” (kredietinstelling) is a party engaged in the business of obtaining callable funds (opvorderbare gelden) from outside a restricted circle (besloten kring) and from parties other than professional market parties (professionele marktpartijen) and of the extension of loans (kredietuitzettingen) at such party’s (own) …
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13
Nov 2013
CATEGORY

Finance

COMMENTS No Comments

REGULATORY LAWS IN THE BES ISLANDS

There are three regulators

According to the Dutch Central Bank (“DCB”), financial institutions must be sound, reliable and stable to ensure confidence among businesses, consumers and others. DCB states on its website: “In addition to making certain their customers are properly informed about their products and services, these institutions also have a duty of care towards their customers. The financial services industry should also give a high priority to integrity and should never be used for money laundering, terrorist financing, fraud, corruption or other illegal activities. Finally, the market should function properly and there should be adequate market access, with …
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31
Oct 2013
CATEGORY

Finance

COMMENTS No Comments